Dating paper documents
This policy covers direct economic and social impacts that both result from Bank- assisted investment projects, and are caused by (a) the involuntary taking of land resulting in (b) relocation or loss of shelter; (c) loss of assets or access to assets; (d) loss of income sources or means of livelihood, whether or not the affected persons must move to another location; (e) the involuntary restriction of access to legally designated parks and protected areas resulting in adverse impacts on the livelihoods of the displaced persons.However, where impacts on the entire displaced population are minor or fewer than 200 people3 are displaced, an abbreviated resettlement plan may be produced.For the projects with considerable resettlement impact (over 200 people) a complete resettlement plan is required.
Some of the negative impacts and mitigation measures include: studies on allocating land first of all from non-agricultural areas or lands bad for agriculture; iii) in cases of selection of arable lands consider saving of productive lands, improving environmental situation, stopping erosive processes, water logging; iv) try to avoid ungrounded demolition of buildings and constructions, especially houses, causing problems to infrastructure; v) existing buildings and constructions, including illegal underground connections, are defined; vi) Compensations for land holders for their losses are calculated; vii) necessity of moving fertile soil for use in agriculture, forestry, fisheries and for other needs studied; viii) conditions of land acquisition from other land holders are studied.
While Belarus is an open economy, its trade links are concentrated both in terms of products and markets.
Mineral goods –most importantly refined oil and potassium chloride - are the main export product accounting for more than 1/3 of total exports.
Non mineral exports, including most importantly machinery, vehicles and transport equipment are mostly exported to Russia and other CIS markets, which account for 74 percent of non-mineral exports while the share of EU countries in Belarus non-mineral exports account for less than 15 percent.
With Russia's WTO accession in 2012 competitive pressures on Belarus’ major market for non-mineral exports have further intensified.
As Belarus is accelerating its own negotiations with the WTO, understanding the challenges and opportunities faced by the country's exporters is critical to putting in place an effective adaptation strategy that will enhance competitiveness and ensure Belarus can take full advantage of more open market access.
The objective of this note is to analyze the economic impacts of Belarus' potential accession to the WTO.
The note utilizes a modern computable general equilibrium model of the economy of Belarus to simulate impacts on the economy as a whole and on individual sectors.
Appropriate and accessible grievance mechanisms are established for these groups; in new resettlement sites or host communities, infrastructure and public services are provided as necessary to improve, restore, or maintain accessibility and levels of service for the displaced persons and host communities.
Alternative or similar resources are provided to compensate for the loss of access to community resources; and patterns of community organization appropriate to the new circumstances are based on choices made by the displaced persons.
To the extent possible, the existing social and cultural institutions of settlers and any host communities are preserved and settlers' preferences with respect to relocating in preexisting communities and groups are honored.