Invertebrates diversify into many new types (e.g., long straight-shelled cephalopods). Anomalocarids are giant predators, while many Ediacaran fauna die out. Atmospheric COGood fossils of the first multi-celled animals. Simple trace fossils of possible worm-like Trichophycus, etc. Enigmatic forms include many soft-jellied creatures shaped like bags, disks, or quilts (like Dickinsonia). Early corals, articulate brachiopods (Orthida, Strophomenida, etc.), bivalves, nautiloids, trilobites, ostracods, bryozoa, many types of echinoderms (crinoids, cystoids, starfish, etc.), branched graptolites, and other taxa all common. Prokaryotes, protists (e.g., forams), fungi and algae continue to present day. Petermann Orogeny on the Australian Continent tapers off (550–535 Ma). Adelaide Geosyncline (Delamerian Orogeny), majority of orogenic activity from 514–500 Ma. This clock representation shows some of the major units of geological time and definitive events of Earth history.

dating an orogeny-25

Other subdivisions reflect the evolution of life; the Archean and Proterozoic are both eons, the Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic are eras of the Phanerozoic eon.

The two million year Quaternary period, the time of recognizable humans, is too small to be visible at this scale.

The geological time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological measurement that relates stratigraphy to time, and is used by geologists, paleontologists, and other Earth scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred throughout Earth’s history.

年表中最大的時間單位是宙/元(eon),宙下是代(era),代下分紀(period),紀下分世(epoch),世下分期(age),期下分時(chron)。必須說明,年表雖有時間的概念,也就是說,當獲悉該化石是何宙、代、紀、世、期或時的遺物,間接可知道它形成的粗略時間(當然是很粗略的估計值)。事實上,年表的時間單位是完全人為性劃分的,和日曆中的年月日不同,它不能使人了解每個宙、代、紀、世、期或時經歷的準確時間。 末次冰期結束,人類文明興起。第四紀冰河時期退去,目前的間冰期開始。新仙女木期發生寒流,大草原構成了撒哈拉,人類開始農業活動進而建立城市。舊石器時代/新石器時代文化(石器時代)開始公元前1萬年,讓位給紅銅時代(公元前3500年)和青銅時代(公元前2500年)。經歷鐵器時代(公元前1200年)文化持續在複雜性和技術方面成長進步,引起世界各地許多史前文化,最終通向古典時代,如羅馬帝國,文化發展甚至到了中世紀至今。在1400至1850年小冰期(冰階)導致北半球短暫的冷卻。另請參閱考古時期目錄釐清早期的文化和年代。1815年坦博拉火山爆發,造年歐洲和北美天氣異常形成火山冬天導致無夏之年(1816年)。繼工業革命以來,地球大氣層中的二氧化碳含量從280ppmv(體積的百萬分之一)上升到目前的390ppmv。大型樹形石松門植物(如「磷木」)形成森林。第一代四足類動物和兩棲鱟類動物(如廣翅鱟,Euripterid)登陸並在成煤海岸邊的一些鹹水坑(Brackish water)附近生活。 此時占據主宰地位的大型掠食魚類是肉鰭魚中的根齒魚。在大洋中,早期軟骨魚(Chondrichthyes,如鯊魚)趨於常見並且呈多樣化發展;棘皮動物(尤其是海百合和海蕾)繁榮興盛。珊瑚,外肛門動物,棱菊石目動物和腕足門動物(如長身貝--productida、石燕貝--spiriferida 等)已經十分常見,但是三葉蟲和鸚鵡螺漸趨衰落。在下石炭紀時期岡瓦那大陸東部開始進入冰川時期。位於紐西蘭北部的馬約爾島造山運動(Mayor Island / Tuhuaorogeny)進入尾聲。First clubmosses, horsetails and ferns appear, as do the first seed-bearing plants (progymnosperms), first trees (the progymnosperm Archaeopteris), and first (wingless) insects.

Strophomenid and atrypid brachiopods, rugose and tabulate corals, and crinoids are all abundant in the oceans.

Goniatite ammonoids are plentiful, while squid-like coleoids arise. Beginning of Acadian Orogeny for Anti-Atlas Mountains of North Africa, and Appalachian Mountains of North America, also the Antler, Variscan, and Tuhua Orogeny in New Zealand. Lake Ruker / Nimrod Orogeny in Antarctica, 1000 ± 150 Ma. 920 - 850 Ma), Gascoyne Complex, Western Australia.Trilobites and armoured agnaths decline, while jawed fishes (placoderms, lobe-finned and ray-finned fish, and early sharks) rule the seas. First Vascular plants (the rhyniophytes and their relatives), first millipedes and arthropleurids on land. Adelaide Geosyncline laid down on Australian Continent, beginning of Adelaide Geosyncline (Delamerian Orogeny) in that continent. Yapungku Orogeny on Yilgarn craton, in Western Australia. Penokean and Trans-Hudsonian Orogenies in North America. Glenburgh Orogeny, Glenburgh Terrane, Australian Continent c. Kimban Orogeny, Gawler craton in Australian Continent begins.First jawed fishes, as well as many armoured jawless fish, populate the seas. Tabulate and rugose corals, brachiopods (Pentamerida, Rhynchonellida, etc.), and crinoids all abundant. First complex single-celled life: protists with nuclei. Mangaroon Orogeny, 1680–1620 Ma, on the Gascoyne Complex in Western Australia. Trilobites and mollusks diverse; graptolites not as varied. Kararan Orogeny (1650-Ma), Gawler Craton, South Australia. Beginning of Caledonian Orogeny for hills in England, Ireland, Wales, Scotland, and the Scandinavian Mountains. Also continued into Devonian period as the Acadian Orogeny, above. Lachlan Orogeny on Australian Continent tapers off. Major diversification of life in the Cambrian Explosion. First chordates appear, along with a number of extinct, problematic phyla. Trilobites, priapulid worms, sponges, inarticulate brachiopods (unhinged lampshells), and many other animals numerous. Beginning of Petermann Orogeny on Australian Continent.